The organization informs the authority defined in the legislation (CSIRT) without delay about disturbances that have significantly affected the provision of its services.
A disturbance is significant when at least one of the following occurs:
Notifications are to be done step by step according to the descriptions below. In addition, while the disruption is ongoing, the organization must deliver the status updates requested by the authority.
Early warning (at the latest within 24 hours of detecting the disruption)
More detailed notification of disruption (within 72 hours of the disruption at the latest detection)
Final report (at the latest within 1 month of the incident report)
All security incidents are addressed in a consistent manner to improve security based on what has happened.
In the incident treatment process:
The organization shall ensure that clear persons are assigned to incident management responsibilities, e.g. handling the first response for incidents.
Incident management personnel need to be instructed and trained to understand the organization's priorities in dealing with security incidents.
A process for reporting incidents is maintained to help staff report incidents efficiently and consistently.
Things to report as an incident include e.g.:
The personnel guidelines emphasize the obligation to report security incidents as soon as possible in accordance with the agreed process. The instructions also describe other operations in the event of an incident (e.g. recording seen error messages and other details).
Viranomaisen on viipymättä tiedotettava niille, jotka hyödyntävät sen tietoaineistoja, jos viranoman tietojenhallintaan kohdistuu häiriö, joka estää tai uhkaa estää tietoaineistojen saatavuuden. Tiedotuksessa on annettava seuraavat tiedot:
a) Häiriön tai sen uhan arvioitu kesto.
b) Mahdolliset korvaavat tavat hyödyntää viranomaisen tietoaineistoja, jos sellaisia on.
c) Häiriön tai uhan päättyessä.
Viranomaisen on noudatettava digitaalisten palvelujen ja muiden sähköisten tiedonsiirtomenetelmien käyttökatkoista tiedottamisesta yleisölle annettuja ohjeita, kuten ne on säädetty digitaalisten palvelujen tarjoamisesta annetun lain (306/2019) 4 §:n 2 momentissa.
When users of the organization's services are potentially exposed to a significant information security threat, the organization must communicate this to them, including all possible remedial measures that users can take themselves to protect themselves against the threat.
When necessary for clarity of communication, the organization must include in its communication also more general information about the related information security threat.
If it is appropriate from the point of view of the service provided by the organization, the organization will notify the users of its services without delay of significant disruptions that are likely to negatively affect the delivery of the services in question.
A disruption is significant when at least one of the following occurs:
The organization should regularly, at least once a year, practice potential disruption or attack situations.
The exercise can focus either on developing disturbance detection, response or management, or all of these.
Documentation of the implementation of exercises and observations must be maintained.
The organization must have a procedure for reporting disturbances, attacks and violations to the authorities. For example:
For each identified critical function, the organization should define how long an interruption can be tolerated without disrupting the organization's operations.
The definition must take into account:
Organization must create processes that identify, collect and store relevant evidence information related to information security incidents. The evidence may need to have been collected in a way that can be accepted in relevant courts or other similar disciplinary bodies.
Regarding the evidence material, it should be possible to demonstrate e.g.:
Certification or other assurances of the competency of related personnel and tools may additionally be considered to establish more evidentiary value.
The organization shall establish means to limit the impact of the incident to a minimum. The means should correspond to the plans made and include:
Detection processes and procedures are maintained and tested to ensure awareness of anomalous events. Detection activities must comply with all relevant requirements.
The organization must define the threshold at which a security incident becomes a cyber security breach.
The organization shall determine what security events it monitors and in what ways.
Security events should be monitored from a variety of sources to identify important potential incidents that require a response. Information can be obtained e.g. directly from the management system, external partners, or logs generated by the organization’s equipment.
Examples of security incidents that can be monitored include:
When offering cloud services, the organisation needs to have planned processes or procedures for:
The organization has defined metrics that can be monitored and are related to cyber security incident management. At its best, good metrics help detect weaknesses in incident detection.
Possible metrics include:
The organization has defined a process and the team involved in responding promptly to security incidents and deciding on the appropriate actions.
The first level response process includes at least:
The organization should take into account environmental threats that may affect the usability of systems as part of the risk assessment process and also as part of the information security incident process.
Environmental threats include, for example:
After a disturbance, a forensic examination must be carried out on the malicious code or other remnants of the disturbance. A safe investigation in a closed environment can open up the causes, goals, and motives of the incident. This helps the organization fix potential security vulnerabilities, prepare for similar incidents, and identify or profile a potential attacker.
The organization shall define procedures for clearly sorting detected security events. Sorting must enable the prioritizing of events according to severity and potential impact.
Sorting is intended to enhance the investigation and evaluation of security events so that, for example, a response to a disruption can be initiated quickly.
Procedures can consist of common processes, technical tools, or algorithms that utilize machine learning. Procedures need to be reviewed regularly to ensure that they work and are appropriate for their needs.
If it is difficult to identify the source of a security incident based on the primary treatment, a separate follow-up analysis is performed for the incident, in which the root cause is sought to be identified.
The knowledge gained from analyzing and resolving security incidents should be used to reduce the likelihood of future incidents and their impact.
The organization regularly analyzes incidents as a whole. This process examines the type, amount and cost of incidents with the aim of identifying recurrent and significant incidents that need more action.
If recurrent incidents requiring response are identified, based on them:
The organization has defined procedures to ensure that the original reporter and other personnel involved in the incident are informed of the outcome of the incident management.
Linked personnel can be documented on an optional field on the incident documentation template.