The organization should have defined guidelines for the generally acceptable use of data systems and for the management of the necessary credentials.
In addition, the owners of data systems classified as 'High' or 'Critical' priority can define, document, and implement more specific guidelines for the use of that particular data system. These guidelines can describe e.g. security requirements related to the data contained in the system.
The organization has predefined authentication methods that employees should prefer when using data systems.
When using cloud services, the user can often freely decide how he or she authenticates with the service. A single centralized authentication account (such as a Google or Microsoft 365 account) can help close a large number of access rights at once when the main user account that acts as the authentication method is closed.
Systems containing important information should be logged in using a multi-authentication logon, also known as either “two-factor”, “multi-factor” or “dual factor” authentication.
For example, when first logging in with a password, a one-time authentication code can also be sent to the user as a text message. In this case, he has been identified by two factors (knowing the password and owning the phone).
Biometric identifiers (eg fingerprint) and other devices can also be used for two-stage authentication. However, it is worth considering the costs and implications for privacy.
The organization implements role-based access control with predefined access roles for the various protected assets that entitle access to the associated asset. Strictness of the access roles should reflect the security risks associated with the asset.
The following should be considered to support access management:
Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is required for administrators in the organization's key data systems.
For example, when first logging in with a password, a one-time identification code can also be sent to the user as a text message. In this case, he has been identified by two factors (knowing the password and ownership of the phone).
Biometric identifiers (e.g. fingerprints) and other devices can also be used for multi-stage authentication. However, it is worth considering the costs and implications for privacy.
The need-to-know principle grants access only to information that an individual needs to perform his or her task. Different tasks and roles have different information needs and thus different access profiles.
Separation of tasks means that conflicting tasks and responsibilities must be separated in order to reduce the risk of unauthorized or unintentional modification or misuse of the organisation's protected assets.
To ensure that authorized users have access to data systems and to prevent unauthorized access, the organization has defined formal processes for:
The implementation of these things must always take place through a defined, formal process.